Tundra is the coldest of all environments. There are no trees on the tundra and little to no rainfall.
The Arctic tundra encircles the north pole, extending down to the forests of the taiga. Vegetation is short, growing low to the ground, and grouped together in tight bunches to protect from the cold. A permanently frozen layer of ground, called permafrost, keeps plants from having deep root systems.
Alpine tundra occurs in high mountain ranges around the globe. Like the Arctic tundra the vegetation is short, and there are no trees. A few stunted shrubs are sometimes seen. Unlike the Arctic tundra, the soil of the alpine tundra is well drained.